By Armin Fuchs (auth.), Raoul Huys, Viktor K. Jirsa (eds.)
Humans have interaction in a likely unending number of varied behaviors, of which a few are discovered throughout species, whereas others are conceived of as in general human. most widely, habit comes approximately during the interaction of varied constraints – informational, mechanical, neural, metabolic, etc – working at a number of scales in house and time. through the years, consensus has grown within the study neighborhood that, instead of investigating habit basically from backside up, it can be additionally good understood when it comes to strategies and legislation at the phenomenological point. Such most sensible down technique is rooted in theories of synergetics and self-organization utilizing instruments from nonlinear dynamics. the current compendium brings jointly scientists from worldwide that experience contributed to the advance in their respective fields departing from this historical past. It presents an creation to deterministic in addition to stochastic dynamical structures and includes purposes to motor keep an eye on and coordination, visible notion and phantasm, in addition to auditory notion within the context of speech and music.
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Extra info for Nonlinear Dynamics in Human Behavior
For instance, trajectories of limb cycling describing a bounded area in the position-velocity or phase plane may be interpreted as indicative of a limit cycle attractor, at least when modeling efforts are restricted to identifying deterministic forms, thereby disregarding variability. , harmonic balance, Kay et al (1987, 1991) derived second-order nonlinear differential equations that mimic experimentally observed amplitude-frequency relations and phase response characteristics of rhythmic finger and wrist movements.
As shown in fig. 27 the time series for the hybrid oscillator is almost sinusoidal and the trajectory is elliptical. The power spectrum has a single peak at the fundamental frequency. Moreover, the relation between the amplitude and frequency is a linear decrease in amplitude when the rate is increased as shown schematically in fig. 28. Taken together, the hybrid oscillator is a good approximation for the trajectories of human limb movements. 32 A. Fuchs x x(Ω) x x t Ω ω Fig. 27 The hybrid oscillator: time series (left), phase space trajectory (middle) and power spectrum (right).
Starting from a variety of quadratic and cubic nonlinearities in x and x˙ we first used the symmetry between the flexion and extension phase of the movement to rule out any quadratic terms. Then we studied the influence of the van-der-Pol and Rayleigh terms on the time series, phase portraits and spectra. In combining these nonlinearities to the hybrid oscillator we found a dynamical system that is in agreement with the experimental findings, namely • the trajectory in phase space is a stable limit cycle.