Designed for speedy reference within the sanatorium hallway or on the nurses' station, this instruction manual offers succinct, bulleted, up to the moment details on fluid and electrolyte homeostasis and customary fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base imbalances. half 1 offers a speedy refresher on key proof nurses have to assessment review findings regarding fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. half 2 includes entries on imbalances, which are are alphabetically prepared and provided on easy-to-scan two-page spreads. various tables and illustrations are incorporated. trademarks spotlight very likely risky events and issues and age-related concerns.
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Additional info for Nurse’s Quick Check: Fluids and Electrolytes
To prevent respiratory distress, position the patient for maximal lung expansion, turn the patient often, and encourage deep-breathing exercises. qxd 18/8/08 12:12 PM Page 39 ALERT If the patient develops severe respiratory distress during the dwell phase of dialysis, drain the peritoneal cavity and notify the doctor. Setup for peritoneal dialysis The proper setup for peritoneal dialysis is shown below. Special considerations ❍ ❍ ❍ ❍ ❍ ❍ ❍ ❍ ❍ ❍ To prevent protein depletion, the doctor may order a high-protein diet or a protein supplement and monitoring of serum albumin levels.
It’s also known as phosphate. ❍ About 85% of phosphorus is in bone and teeth, combined in a 1:2 ratio with calcium. About 14% is in soft tissue, and less than 1% is in extracellular fluid. ❍ An essential element of all body tissues, phosphorus is vital to various body functions. It plays a crucial role in: – cell membrane integrity (phospholipids make up cell membranes) – muscle function – neurologic function – metabolism of carbohydrate, fat, and protein – buffering of acids and bases – promotion of energy transfer to cells through the formation of energy-storing substances such as adenosine triphosphate – white blood cell phagocytosis – platelet function.
They combine with the offending acid or 26 Acid-base balance Chemical buffers ❍ The bicarbonate-buffer system is the body’s primary buffer system and works mainly in blood and interstitial fluid. – This system relies on a series of chemical reactions in which pairs of weak acids and bases (such as carbonic acid and bicarbonate) combine with stronger acids (such as hydrochloric acid) and bases to weaken them. – Decreasing the strength of potentially damaging acids and bases reduces the danger those chemicals pose to pH balance.