By Gerard J. Tortora
The hot variation of Principles of Anatomy and Physiology keeps the excellent stability among constitution and serve as. It maintains to stress the correlations among basic body structure and pathophysiology, general anatomy and pathology, and homeostasis and homeostatic imbalances. The acclaimed representation application is additionally even larger besides the redevelopment of a number of the figures depicting the hardest themes to understand.
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Additional resources for Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 12th Edition
2). 1. A receptor is a body structure that monitors changes in a controlled condition and sends input to a control center. Typically, the input is in the form of nerve impulses or chemical signals. For example, certain nerve endings in the skin sense temperature and can detect changes, such as a dramatic drop in temperature. 2. A control center in the body, for example, the brain, sets the range of values within which a controlled condition should be maintained, evaluates the input it receives from receptors, and generates output commands when they are needed.
Superficial (sooЈ-per-FISH-al) (external) Toward or on the surface of the body. The ribs are superficial to the lungs. Deep (internal) Away from the surface of the body. The ribs are deep to the skin of the chest and back. *Note that the terms anterior and ventral mean the same thing in humans. However, in four-legged animals ventral refers to the belly side and is therefore inferior. Similarly, the terms posterior and dorsal mean the same thing in humans, but in four-legged animals dorsal refers to the back side and is therefore superior.
The sternum (breastbone) is anterior to the heart. The esophagus is posterior to the trachea (windpipe). The ulna is medial to the radius. Lateral (LAT-er-al) Farther from the midline. The lungs are lateral to the heart. Intermediate (inЈ-ter-ME¯ -de¯-at) Between two structures. The transverse colon is intermediate between the ascending and descending colons. Ipsilateral (ip-si-LAT-er-al) On the same side of the body as another structure. The gallbladder and ascending colon are ipsilateral. Contralateral (CON-tra-lat-er-al) On the opposite side of the body from another structure.