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Additional resources for Protein Crystallography: A Concise Guide
For example, FP refers to a vector while both FP and ∆FP∆ denote the amplitude of that vector. We will use both representations of the amplitude interchangeably. How do we ﬁnd the di√raction pattern starting from the electron density function, rather than an atomic model? The answer to this has already been given for the case of a single cat or other object. The answer for a crystalline array of objects is not very di√erent and simply uses a di√erent form of the structure factor equation. In one case we sum over individual atoms and e√ectively infer the electron density function from the atomic positions and the known shapes of the electron clouds of each atom.
In practice crystallographers only consider the n = 1 reﬂection from each family of planes, since the n = 2 reﬂection can be regarded as coming from the planes 2h, 2k, 2l, which have a spacing d /2. Representing anything as complicated as a protein crystal as a set of stacks of planes may seem like a wild oversimpliﬁcation, but for the simple crystals the Braggs were studying in 1915, this model is reasonable. 3. A Bragg plane family and a three-dimensional cosine density ﬂuctuation have characteristics in common.
Struct. Biol. 1999;9(5):615–619, which also provides links to earlier reviews and papers. The art of protein crystallization is beautifully presented in Crystallization of Biological Macromolecules by Alexander McPherson (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, 1999). See Introduction to Protein Architecture by Arthur Lesk (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2003) for an insightful and elegantly illustrated guide to protein structure. 1 What Is Di√raction? Di√raction is the process by which matter deﬂects light rays from their straightline path.