By Charles Selwitz
Significant advancements within the longevity and mechanical energy of deteriorating stone might be accomplished by utilizing epoxy resins as consolidants. The examine provided during this quantity exhibits that the correct use of solvents avoids difficulties of discoloration and crust formation. notably diverse techniques are explored. within the eu version, therapy is finished totally on small items utilizing tools that continue the resin ideas opposed to the stone floor. within the usa, huge floor parts of structures are handled through spraying or brushing.
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Additional info for Research in Conservation 07 Epoxy Resins in Stone Consolidation
Of the nine forms of fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus predominated, followed by the Stemphylium and Cladosporium species. , 5 and 10%. In samples where a 20% concentration of resin was used, the growth of fungi was less than on unimpregnated stone. The epoxy resin may function to deter microbiological growth through a polymer degradation mechanism that cleaves ether linkages to leave free, biocidal phenolic groups. It is also possible that the polyamine functionality, either from unreacted hardener or as part of a cured system, is the source of the nutrient providing for whatever fungal growth occurs.
There was no further stone deterioration. Nonsolvent Systems 38 It was concluded that the relatively high temperature of treatment caused the resin to oxidize during application and this could be minimized by wrapping a protective sheet around the object to exclude oxygen. The next study involved the treatment of an old, deterio- rated tombstone which was done in a manner to facilitate application and the subsequent wrapping in a plastic sheet. Polyethylene terephthalate was chosen as the wrap because it has very low oxygen permeability.
The procedures for stone impregnation, were often those of general convenience or those recommended by manufacturers who had other end uses in mind. Inevitably, the resin was not distributed in an optimal manner and, while there was impressive improvement in mechanical strength, resin concentrated near the surface became discolored and threatened to break off in crustal layers. One of the more comprehensive comparative studies of consolidants was carried out by Rossi-Manaresi (1975, 1981) to find a way to stabilize fourteenth-century historic buildings in Bologna.