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Additional resources for Research Methods in Education, 6th Edition
Medawar 1972) Kerlinger (1970) has identified two criteria for ‘good’ hypotheses. The first is that hypotheses are statements about the relations between variables; and second, that hypotheses carry clear implications for testing the stated relations. To these he adds two ancillary criteria: that hypotheses disclose compatibility with current knowledge; and that they are expressed as economically as possible. Thus if we conjecture that social class background determines academic achievement, we have a relationship between one variable, social class, and another, academic achievement.
For example, Morrison (1995a) identifies empirical theories, ‘grand’ theories and ‘critical’ theory. Empirical theories and critical theories are discussed below. ‘Grand theory’ is a metanarrative, defining an area of study, being speculative, clarifying conceptual structures and frameworks, and creatively enlarging the way we consider behaviour and organizations (Layder 1994). It uses fundamental ontological and epistemological postulates which serve to define a field of inquiry (Hughes 1976).
Its administrative, executive and organizational side. Its publicizing and educational functions. Its applications to human use. Its appreciation, enjoyment, celebration and glorification. Source: Maslow 1954 Clearly there are several different types of theory, and each type of theory defines its own kinds of ‘proof’. For example, Morrison (1995a) identifies empirical theories, ‘grand’ theories and ‘critical’ theory. Empirical theories and critical theories are discussed below. ‘Grand theory’ is a metanarrative, defining an area of study, being speculative, clarifying conceptual structures and frameworks, and creatively enlarging the way we consider behaviour and organizations (Layder 1994).