By Vicki Smith
The basic act of going to paintings each day is a vital part of all societies around the globe. it's an ingrained social agreement: all of us paintings to outlive. however it is going past actual survival. Psychologists have equated wasting a task with the trauma of divorce or a family members loss of life, and large concerns come up, from monetary panic to sinking vanity. via paintings, we construct our self-identity, our way of life, and our aspirations. How did it occur that paintings dominates such a lot of components of our lives and our psyche? This multi-disciplinary encyclopedia covers curricular topics that search to deal with that query, starting from enterprise and administration to anthropology, sociology, social historical past, psychology, politics, economics, and health.
Features & Benefits:
- International and comparative coverage.
- 335 signed entries, A-to-Z, fill 2 volumes in print and digital formats.
- Cross-References and recommendations for additional Readings advisor readers to extra resources.
- A Chronology presents scholars with ancient viewpoint of the sociology of work.
- In the digital model, the excellent Index combines with the Cross-References and thematic Reader's advisor issues to supply strong search-and-browse capabilities.
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Extra info for Sociology of Work: An Encyclopedia
Marx, Karl. Capital, Volume 1. New York: International Publishers, 1987. Marx, Karl. ” In Karl Marx: Early Writings, T. B. Bottomore, ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964. Mirowsky, John. 1 (2011). Alternative Organizations and Cooperatives A small but intriguing sector of the economy, worker cooperatives show the promise as well as the problems of democratic worker self-management. Both radicals and conservatives have alternated between views of worker cooperatives as training for socialism and as a wet blanket on working-class activism, albeit with different assessments of these values.
When the “product” is a satisfied customer, or a service rendered, can workers still be alienated? Arlie Hochschild, in her discussion of service work and “emotional labor,” argues yes. In fact, because employers of service workers dictate not only what workers do but also how they should do it, what they should look like as they are doing it, and sometimes even how they should feel about what they are doing, alienation may be even more intense in today’s service economy. Only with a fundamental change in the mode of production, where workers would be empowered to collectively determine the way they work, would alienation disappear.
Although many animals work, they do so instinctually; human beings not only perform labor, but they also think and plan ahead of time, and this is what makes our species unique. When working, humans express creativity and individuality. Marx held that the organization of work under capitalism stifles creativity and prevents workers from enjoying the fruits of their labor, thereby distorting human nature. Marx identified four basic ways in which work in a capitalist economy is alienating, using the term alienation to reflect separation or estrangement.