By Theunis Piersma
The versatile Phenotype makes an attempt a real synthesis of animal body structure, habit, and ecology by means of constructing an empirical argument that describes the intimate connections among animal phenotype and setting. It starts off with a synthesis of the foundations guiding present examine in ecophysiology, habit, and ecology, illustrating every one point with the special result of empirical paintings on as large quite a number organisms as attainable. The built-in tale of the versatile phenotype is weaved through the e-book at the foundation of the authors' long term study application on migrant shorebirds and their invertebrate prey. those birds go back and forth giant distances from one atmosphere to a different, and the altering nature in their our bodies displays the various choice pressures skilled in those very diverse destinations. In essence, the authors argue for the lifestyles of direct, measurable, hyperlinks among phenotype and ecology. Their ebook outlines a extra encompassing method of evolutionary ecology, in response to first ideas in body structure, habit, and ecology. It aspires to inspire an additional integration of ecology and body structure, in addition to fostering a collaborative learn time table among ecologists and physiologists.
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Extra resources for The Flexible Phenotype: A Body-Centred Integration of Ecology, Physiology, and Behaviour
It is most likely that the worst problems occur during the end of the predicted maintenance metabolism (W) 22 J A S O N D Figure 11. Variation in maintenance costs of islandica knots throughout their annual cycle. 5 W. Adapted from Wiersma and Piersma (1994). wintering period, when fuelling demands larger organs (see Chapter 5), leading to elevated BMRs (Piersma et al. 1996a, 1999b), and thus, presumably, to additional heat production. Furthermore, the growing layer of fat hampers the capacity to lose all the extra heat, and, as if that were not enough, the change into an often darker breeding plumage also increases heat absorption (Battley et al.
Therefore, a part of the problem in designing a universal car was to have as nearly 36 BASICS OF ORGANISMAL DESIGN cost of transport (ml O2 per m distance) number of choices for different gaits walk trot gallop 10 8 6 4 2 0 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 0 1 2 3 4 5 running speed (m/s) 6 7 Figure 22. Horses show three distinct gaits (walk, trot, or gallop), each of which is carried out over a limited range of preferred speeds (top panel). When horses were forced to move at a range of speeds on a treadmill, the preferred running speeds at each of the three gaits corresponded to where they achieved minimal costs of transport (lower panel).
There was one exception: pins called ‘kingpins’ invariably had years of functional life left in them. ‘With ruthless logic’ (Humphrey 1983), Ford concluded that the kingpins of Model T were too good for their job and should be made more cheaply. If he had wanted to build a Mercedes, the pins would have been fine. He would, however, have been obliged to improve all other parts of the car and make it much more expensive. The point is that a ‘design had to balance. Men die because a part gives out.