By Thomas J. Reynolds, Jerry C. Olson
The objective of this publication is to aid enterprise managers and educational researchers comprehend the means-end viewpoint and the tools in which it's used, and to illustrate how one can use the means-end method of increase greater advertising and marketing and advertisements technique. The authors talk about methodological matters relating to interviewing and coding, current functions of the means-end method of advertising and ads difficulties, and describe the conceptual foundations of the means-end strategy. This publication is of curiosity to educational researchers in advertising and marketing and similar fields, graduate scholars in enterprise, advertising and marketing examine pros, and enterprise managers. it really is meant as a reference e-book containing principles concerning the means-end process and its purposes.
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Extra resources for Understanding Consumer Decision Making: The Means-end Approach To Marketing and Advertising Strategy
Journal of Business Research, 20, 153–160. Gutman, J. (1991). Exploring the linkages between consequences and values. Journal of Business Research, 22, 143–149. , & Alden, S. (1984). Adolescents’ cognitive structures of retail stores and fashion consumption: A means-end analysis. ), Perceived quality of products, services, and stores (pp. 115–138). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books. J. (1978). An investigation of the levels of cognitive abstraction utilized by consumers in product differentiation.
The focus of this chapter is on detailing the specifics of the in-depth interviewing and analysis methodology, termed “laddering” (Gutman & Reynolds, 1979; Reynolds & Gutman, 1984a), for uncovering means-end hierarchies defined by these key elements and their linkages or connections. The combination of connected elements, or ladder, represents the linkage between the product and the perceptual process of consumers, which as pointed out previously, yields a more direct and thus more useful understanding of the consumer.
Reynolds (1985) noted, although strong on face validity, these rather general classifications fail to provide an understanding, specifically, of how the concrete aspects of the product fit into the consumer’s life. As such, the macro survey approach only gives part of the answer, namely, the overall value orientation of target segments within the marketplace. Missing are the key defining components of a positioning strategy—the linkages between the product and the personally relevant role it has in the life of the consumer.