By B. C. Smith (auth.)
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331; Leftwich, 1993, pp. 607-8). The other factors contributing to the 'good governance' orthodoxy were the rise of Western neo-liberalism in the late 16 Preliminaries 1970s, the spread of pro-democracy movements in all regions of the Third World as well as Eastern Europe, and the collapse of communism. This last and most momentous development strengthened confidence in the presumed link between political pluralism and economic success and left space for an extension of influence by the capitalist West within a 'New World Order' (Riley, 1992; Leftwich, 1993; Webber, 1993).
As some LDCs have welcomed or at least accepted the inevitability of foreign investment and the dependency that it brings, including subordination in the international division of 28 Preliminaries labour, non-alignment is further undermined. So even by the end of the 1960s, Third World countries were by no means behaving in unity towards East-West relations. A stridently anti-communist group of Asian states emerged - Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and the Philippines. This brought an end to the Third World as a coherent voting block in the UN, splitting it along ideological lines.
This call was taken up by the UN and the World Bank in 1992, both arguing for the liberalisation of global markets and a reduction in the level of protectionism in the OECD countries. The costs of protectionism in the rich countries of the world extend beyond blocking imports from the Third World to include negative capital transfers, higher real interest rates, unequal competition in international services and closed markets for technology. A more rapid transfer of technologies to give Third World countries access to the advanced technologies required by the industrialisation process, and which were proving so successful in some developing countries, also formed part of this aspect of Third Worldism.