By United Nations
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Additional resources for World Population Policies 2007
The so-called green revolution and the mechanization of agriculture have increased farm productivity, while at the same time creating a labour surplus in rural areas. The clustering of businesses and people in cities has generated economies of scale, which in turn have favoured the accumulation of capital and the increase of productivity and fostered trade and the exchange of ideas. In both the more developed and less developed regions, countries with higher levels of urbanization have tended to have higher per capita incomes, more stable economies and stronger political institutions (OECD, 2007; UNHABITAT, 2006).
More than four fifths of developing countries cited under-five mortality as unacceptable and one third of developed countries did so. Dissatisfaction with the level of infant and child mortality decreased since 1996 in the developed countries, when just over half of the Governments of developed countries considered its level unacceptable. In contrast, concern over the level of infant and child mortality remained essentially unchanged in developing countries (table 11). This stability in government views reflected the fact that rapid reductions in child mortality before 1990 gave way to near stagnation during the 1990s in many developing countries.
Other essential elements include the implementation of appropriate programmes, sufficient political commitment and adequate financial resources. Respect for cultural values, partnerships with nongovernmental organizations, civil society, the business community and international donors, good governance and the maintenance of peace and security are also crucial. Lastly, a process to evaluate population policies on a regular basis is also important. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs/Population Division REFERENCES City of New York (2007).