By Eduardo Silva
On the flip of the 20 th century, a concatenation of various social pursuits arose abruptly in Latin the USA, culminating in big anti-free industry demonstrations. those occasions ushered in governments in Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Venezuela that encouraged socialization and making plans, tough the consensus over neoliberal hegemony and the weak spot of pursuits to oppose it. Eduardo Silva deals the 1st finished comparative account of those notable occasions, arguing that the shift was once inspired via favorable political associational house, a reformist orientation to calls for, financial challenge, and mechanisms that facilitated horizontal linkages between a wide selection of social move enterprises. His research applies Karl Polanyi's thought of the double move of marketplace society to those occasions, predicting the dawning of an period extra supportive of presidency intervention within the economic system and society.
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Additional resources for Challenging Neoliberalism in Latin America
For introductions to the vast literature on democracy and democratization, see O’Donnell, Schmitter, and Whitehead (1986); Przeworski (1995, 1991); Dominguez and Lowenthal (1996); ´ Mainwaring, O’Donnell, and Valenzuela (1992); Linz and Stepan (1996); Diamond (1999); Di Palma (1990); Hagopian and Mainwaring (2005). This brings Silver (2003) close to the moral economy arguments of Scott (1976). Almeida (2007) made similar arguments for Latin America. As nations reintegrated into the world economy based on a primary product export-led development strategy, and in the midst of rapid deindustrialization, economic concentration led by conglomerates stunted formal sector employment.
Thus many different types of protest movements were, each in their own way, anti-neoliberal. The fact that grievances and demands could be traced back to a common point – the neoliberal reform project – facilitated the articulation of horizontal linkages among initially decentralized protest movements and thus the merger of parallel streams of contention. What then was the logic of the order neoliberal reforms 3 4 Although studies exist that examine the relationship between neoliberalism and popular mobilization, they have not theorized what it is about neoliberalism that brings so many different streams of protest together.
From the logic of these relationships, Polanyi theorized the double movement of capitalist society in which the construction of market society necessarily generated a protectionist countermovement within society. All manner of social 5 A lively debate exists over Polanyi’s stress on exchange instead of production to analyze the dynamics of capitalism (Block and Somers 1984). I am less concerned with which circuits of capital have primacy and more interested in their implications for the rise of contentious politics capable of reforming neoliberalism.