By Johan Fritzell, Bjorn Hvinden, Mikko Kautto, Jon Kvist, Hannu Uusitalo
This crucial sequel to Nordic Social Policy (Routledge 1999) compares welfare country improvement over the past 20 years in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden with that of Germany, the Netherlands, the uk and different Western ecu international locations. themes coated comprise: * source of revenue distribution, healthiness inequalities and gender equality * gender rules, wellbeing and fitness and social care prone and coverage response to relations adjustments * social safeguard and employment regulations * financing of welfare states. within the context of globalisation, getting older populations, altering employment styles and emerging inequalities, Nordic Welfare States within the ecu Context deals an empirical research of welfare variations and a full of life dialogue of the ancient improvement of eu social coverage. It unearths a better ambiguity relating to version and tendencies than is usually steered. opposite to expectation, there's little proof of the Europeanisation of Nordic welfare states, really the opposite. The related and empirical facts utilized in this research make it a different contribution to realizing present traits in eu social coverage.
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Additional resources for Nordic Welfare States in the European Context
It may therefore be argued that levels and trends in morbidity and mortality provide essential evidence for evaluating the performance of welfare states. This is also reflected in the frequent use of infant mortality rates and life expectancies in broad international comparisons of welfare. The fact that people’s social positions are linked to their morbidity and mortality risk in a systematic way means that it is not sufficient to study overall levels of ill health only. There must be additional focus on health inequalities as revealed by the distribution of ill health between population groups.
3 Income inequality in equivalent market and gross income in midlate 1980s and in mid-1990s 25 Nordic welfare states in the european context 26 We now turn to the issue of how these changes in inequality when including cash benefits came about. This was examined by studying both the size of cash benefits and how they were distributed over the income distribution, but this time restricting the analysis to the latest available year of observation for each country. 1 reports how total transfer income, for the same age group as earlier, was distributed over income groups divided by quintiles.
However, it seems as if the Netherlands had a distributional profile fairly similar to Denmark, Finland and Sweden, whereas the distribution of cash benefits in Norway was not that different from Germany. So the country grouping is less clear in this analysis. 1, where the average transfer income is reported in relation to gross income. Once again Norway deviates from the other Nordic countries. Thus the average transfer income was higher in both the Netherlands and the United Kingdom compared to Norway.