By W. Stewart Howe (auth.)
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Extra resources for Retailing Management
We then examine 18 The Retailing Environment new trends in retail competition which came about with greater freedom in retail pricing, and phenomena such as trading stamps and private label goods. Finally we return to an earlier theme of examining the proportion of the retail trade accounted for by different forms of retailing and try to account for these changes. The Data of Retail Distribution Using the figures in the Census of Distribution is a frustrating exercise. Data which ought to be comparable between one census and another tum out not to be so; definitions of, for example, multiple shop organisations in terms of the number of branches change; and the levels of aggregation of different types of shop also change from one census to another.
From this time on, however, the department stores began to encounter problems in terms of a population drift further and further out to the suburbs on the part of their traditional customers, increased physical limitations and rising costs associated with their city-centre locations, and perhaps most of all the incursions into their product ranges of the multiple and chain store organisations. As these shops moved increasingly into clothing the multiple stores demonstrated that they too could offer a range of items; and these could be offered at prices which reflected the much greater purchasing economies of the multiples, each with a more restricted range of merchandise overall than the typical department store.
M. in the late 1950s to mid-1960s. In the grocery sector in particular these multiples advanced from a 20 per cent share of this market in 1950 to 40 per cent in 1968. By 1975 their proportion of the trade had reached 49 per cent, and by 1986 it was 71 per cent. 62 Both cost and demand conditions have continued to favour large-scale retail distributors since the Second World War. First, pre-packaging and branding of foods (in ever more sophisticated forms thanks to Clarence Birdseye and other innovators) created a national product market.